3 Branches of Government


Article 1 - Legislative Branch

The legislative branch consists of Congress. Congress is divided into two sections; the House of Representatives and the Senate. 

House of Representatives

The House of Representatives can choose their speaker and other Officers. 

The House of Representatives has the sole power of Impeachment.  

All bills for raising revenue will originate in the House of Representatives. 


The Vice-President of the United States is the President of the Senate and has no voting power within the Senate unless they have a tie in their votes.    

They can choose their Officers and a president pro tempore (when the vice-president is absent).  

They have the sole power to try all impeachments.  

The Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other bills. 


They assemble at least once a year which is typically the first Monday of December.  

They can judge the elections, returns and qualifications of their own members. 

Each House may determine the Rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior and with at least the concurrence of two-thirds, expel the member.  

They keep a journal of their proceedings. 

They may publish it from time to time but they may keep certain things secret that the public must not know. 

To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; 

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; 

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; 

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States; 

To establish Post Offices and post Roads; 

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries; 

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; 

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations; 

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; 

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; 

To provide and maintain a Navy; 

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces; 

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof. 

They DO NOT:

have constitutional authority to dictate healthcare policy.

have constitutional authority to dictate education (State's Right).

have constitutional authority to implement sanctions.

have constitutional authority in foreign aid. There are only two reasons why they engage in foreign aid; bribery and blackmail.

Congress can "only" create laws that will assist them within their job description.

Congress has constitutional authority to coin our money but they relinquished that to the private bankers of the Federal Reserve.

Article 2 - Executive Branch

The executive branch consists of the president, executive officers and offices.

The President

He is the Commander in Chief of the Military ONLY when the military is called upon. 

He can ask for the opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments. 

He can grant reprieves and pardons except in cases of impeachment. 

He can make treaties and they can only be accepted if they are confirmed by two-thirds of the Senate and if they are consistent with Article 6 Section 2 of the Constitution. 

He can nominate and/or appoint Ambassadors, public Ministers, Consuls and Judges of the Supreme Court as well as other officers of the United States whose appointments are not already provided for. 

He has the ability to fill up vacancies that may happen during recess of the Senate by granting commissions which will end at the end of their next session. 

From time to time, he will give Congress a “State of the Union” and recommend their consideration to issues that he feel are necessary and important. 

Only by extraordinary occasions, he may convene both Houses, or either of them and if they cannot agree, he may adjourn them until a further time that he deems necessary. 

He may receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers, make sure the laws are being followed and have the ability to commission all officers of the United States. 

Presidential Facts

Presidents have been working outside the realm of their executive authority for decades now.

You should never compare one president against another. Yet compare them to the Constitution. 

When you look at Article II, you realize just how little power the president has constitutionally speaking. 

Americans have gravitated towards a more all-consuming executive branch instead of an executive that is in service of the legislative. 

The president is not the leader of America and was never intended to be either. The president was intended to be the ambassador of the States in foreign affairs. You can actually see this in the powers that are delegated. 

The president is not the designator of war. He is not the controller of our military unless there has been a formal declaration of war by Congress. 

The last time we had a declaration of war by Congress was WWII. That means that every military action that has been led by the president since then, has been unconstitutional. 

Presidents cannot make deals. They can only make treaties and those treaties can only be accepted if they are confirmed by two-thirds of the Senate and if they are consistent with Article 6 Section 2 of the Constitution. 

There is an expansion of presidential power that contradicts the intentions of our founding fathers. 

Article 3 - Judicial Branch

The judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court of the United States of America and all inferior court systems.

Supreme Court

They hold their Offices during good behavior.  

They have authority to judge in cases of law and equity that fall under the Constitution, the laws of this nation or under any treaties made.  

They have authority to judge cases that affect Ambassadors, public Ministers and Consuls.  

They have the authority to judge all cases that involve Admiralty and Maritime jurisdiction.  

They have the authority to intervene in any controversies that involve the United States.  

They have authority to intervene on controversies between two or more states, between citizens of a different state, citizens and the same state that are claiming Lands under Grants of different states and between a State or the Citizens within and foreign States.  

They will have original jurisdiction in the case of Ambassadors, public Ministers and Consuls and those in which a State shall be party. 

Separation of Powers

The Intention

The intention of having three branches of government is so none of them have more power than the other and run rogue. This is what is typically referred to as "checks and balances." 

Legislative Checks on Executive & Judicial

Executive - Can override the president's veto, confirms executive appointments, ratifies treaties, can declare war, appropriates money and can impeach and remove the president.

Judicial - Creates lower federal courts, can impeach and remove judges, can impose amendments to overrule judicial decisions and approve appointments of federal judges.

Executive Checks on Legislative & Judicial

Legislative - Can propose laws, can veto laws, can call special sessions of Congress, make appointments and negotiate foreign treaties.

Judicial - Appoints federal judges and can grant pardons to federal offenders.

Judicial Checks on Legislative and Executive

Executive - Can declare executive actions unconstitutional

Legislative - Can declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.